Nick Salzano Discusses What makes Compound Exercises great?

Nick Salzano, the fitness expert from New Jersey has created an article on compound exercises.

Let’s read what Nick Salzano has to say:

The vast majority who don’t exercise consistently frequently state ‘absence of time’ as a typical reason. Shuffling a regular occupation with a family can make it hard to press in exercise time into the day. 

Notwithstanding, this reason isn’t sufficient to swear off work out. You need to design your exercise cautiously where you can acquire it by investing less energy, and the solution to your concern is compound exercises. 

Compound exercises work on various muscle bunches simultaneously. They are successful in consuming fat and building muscles in a restricted measure of time. 

Compound exercises work more muscles. 

While doing lateral raise, the focal point of the sidelong raise is a solitary muscle, explicitly the average (centre) top of your deltoid or shoulder muscle. 

“Muscles seldom work in disengagement in reality,” says Openfit Senior Manager of Fitness and Nutrition Content Trevor Thieme, C.S.C.S and

Nick Salzano quotes him. “So preparing them to cooperate is a more viable way of developing utilitarian fortitude.” 

Functional strength works out; he clarifies, develops true fortitude and regularly takes after ordinary developments. 

Playing out the squat is like standing up from a situated position, though making a separation move like the leg expansion is like, indeed, nothing you’d regularly do elsewhere alongside the exercise centre. 

The two exercises assemble muscle – yet compound exercises are more adaptable to proper exercises. 

Compound exercises consume more calories. 

Since compound exercises connect more muscle (a.k.a. “metabolically dynamic tissue”) then confinement works out, they increment calorie consumption positively. 

Compound exercises make you more robust.

Since compound exercises connect more muscle than isolation works out, they can move heavier burdens. “That prompts more prominent ‘mechanical pressure,’ which is a key development upgrade,” says Thieme and Nick Salzano quotes him. 

“Also, the explanation is that it causes more miniature harm inside the muscle, which the body fixes and supports, making you more grounded. 

Safety tips while doing Compound Exercises 

Compound weight lifting incorporates moving significant burdens, which can prompt a greater danger of injury. Here are some safety tips for driving customers on. 

Method and structure: Practice building appropriate form before expanding the heap. 

Rest: Ample rest is significant between sets. Strength preparing with compound exercises should incorporate rest as long as four minutes in the middle of sets. 

Rest days: Having days off is critical to offer the sensory system a reprieve from the pressure compound lifting instigates. 

Require 48 hours in the middle of exceptional and weighty exercises before working similar development or muscles. 

Split t exercises: Splits guarantee the most extreme force and volume with sufficient rest. Two famous exercise parts are performing chest area and lower body two times each week. Full four days of the week. Or, on the other hand, three full-body exercises each week. 

Cooldown: Always cool down after an exercise to further develop blood flow and pulse recuperation. 

The Best Compound Exercises 

The advantages of compound exercises are an aftereffect of them being multi-joint movements. At the point when numerous joints are utilized, significant muscle bunches work simultaneously. 

Barbell Back Squat

Squats are a compound exercise or multi-joint development. The squat development design works numerous leg muscles, including the hamstrings, quadriceps, and glutes. The hips, knees, and lower legs are, for the most part, joints engaged with the exercise when contrasted with leg augmentations which include just the knee joint. 

Albeit a leg workout, the squat fuses the chest area through various muscle gatherings. To have an excellent squat structure, the hand weight should lay on the upper back. One should have excellent shoulder adaptability and solidarity to rest in this position. Shoulder width can add to the versatility potential and execution of the development. 

At the base or end scope of the squat, the quadriceps are exceptionally enacted. This is because of the level of twisting in the knees. The quads start the development of remaining back up. 

The hips need to reach out forward to remain back up, and the back affix needs to work significantly more. The hamstring and glutes are liable for finishing the activity. 

Barbell Bench Press

The free weight seat press is viewed as one of the most fantastic chest area compound exercises. It helps develop fortitude and muscle in the chest, rear arm muscles, and shoulders. With three significant muscle assemblies working, the profit from speculation is high. 

The joints utilized during level seat presses incorporate the shoulder and elbow joints. The shoulders kidnap and adduct while the elbows flex and broaden. This enlisted people in many muscle filaments. 

Barbell Deadlift 

The deadlift practice is a hip pivot development design focusing on a wide range of muscle bunches on the double. It is a back affix prevailing activity contrasted with squats. 

Deadlifts utilize numerous joints, including the hips, knees, and lower legs. Play out this compound development with an overhand grasp. You’ll work the lower arms, glutes, hamstrings, calves, lats, traps, and abs. 

The chest area inclusion of the back and centre balances out the body and keeps the spine impartial during the lift. When bringing down the free weight in a deadlift, the body flexes at the hip joint and afterwards stretches out when getting back to the standing position. Agreement the hamstrings and glutes to finish the deadlift. 

Standing Military Press 

The tactical press includes the shoulders, upper back, upper chest, and back arm muscles. It even invigorates the centre to balance out the body to stay upstanding and standing. 

To play out the shoulder press, the shoulder and elbow joint should be portable. The measure of all-out body actuation is the thing that makes the potential for muscle development and strength gains. 

Pull-ups 

There are relatively few bodyweight compound exercises out there, yet pull-ups are genuinely outstanding. Pull-ups increment arm, back, and hold firm. Muscles utilized in this compound exercise are the pecs, shoulders, lats, and rhomboids. Furthermore, to hold the body back from swinging, the centre should also be utilized. 

Conclusion

Nick Salzano believes compound exercises challenge various muscle bunches immediately for unhealthy consuming cardio and strength training in one. Contrasted and separation work out, focusing on a solitary muscle bunch (like the rear arm muscles with a rear arm muscle augmentation), compound exercises target many muscles together. Models incorporate squats and deadlifts, which fire up many muscles. 

Anybody with wounds or recuperating from a medical procedure ought to keep away from compound developments, given the strain it puts on the body. 

Before endeavouring compound exercises, work on learning essential separating exercises to consolidate together for appropriate structure, execution and to receive the total rewards of the exercise. 

Compound and disengagement exercises both have their extraordinary individual advantages, with neither one of the ones offsetting the other. 

Maybe, individual objectives and inclination will figure out which exercise is generally reasonable for a person.

Img Source

Nick Salzano Discusses The Future of Kai Greene in World’s Bodybuilding

Will Kai Greene flex on the Olympia stage again in October? 

When not tweeting about cryptographic money, he’s undoubtedly been indicating that he will lately post physique update photographs on Instagram and Twitter and provoke his old enemy, 7-time Mr Olympia Phil Heath. 

In March, he met with Olympia advertiser Dan Solomon, who made no mystery of the reality he needs Greene in the current year’s Mr Olympia (Greene isn’t qualified, be that as it may, as three-time next in line and one of the world’s most mainstream muscle heads, almost certainly an exceptional invite would be expanded.) 

But Kai has prodded us previously. He last competed in the Olympia seven years prior. He turns 46 on July 12

How reasonable is it that he’ll be in the arrangement this year? What’s more, on the off chance that he is, would he be able to win? 

In the wake of finishing second behind Phil Heath in three straight Olympiads (2012-14), he was set to challenge the Gift for lifting weights’ classic title once more in 2015. 

Be that as it may, a debate about stall space at the exhibition held him back from marking the Olympia contract, and, even though the invitation was reached out until the last days, he selected to avoid working out in the biggest tournament.

Many accepted he didn’t have any desire to confront the chance of a fourth consecutive second to Heath. The following year, he effortlessly won three Arnold Classics; at 40, he avoided Olympia. What’s more, that is it. 

From that point forward, he’s proceeded to prepare and protein-up, keeping a body that takes after the one we keep going saw on a phase, routinely presenting via web-based media, and now and again showing up at bodybuilding events.

Greene has no significant wounds, and if you’ve at any point seen how fastidiously he heats up, you would know how cautiously he prepares for substantial burdens. 

You don’t perceive any torn muscles, scarred tissue, or different interruptions that can damage the assemblages of other 40-somethings. 

Kai Greene is a riddle, and I imply that as a commendation. You never knew where he would go. Similarly, his exercises could here and there track down another way to get from direct A toward point Z. 

He followed his rationale, and it has worked for him in boosting muscle. Which is all to say: I don’t have a clue what he’ll choose, or if he’s chosen, or when he’ll choose. 

He’s prodded rebounds in earlier years, as well, to disillusion his numerous fans. Perhaps he doesn’t have a clue yet. 

Maybe he needs to perceive how his body reacts to the principal phases of challenge prep. Maybe he’ll be bound to contend if Heath does as well. 

Perhaps he’ll adjust his perspective more than once as the mid-year advances. Or, on the other hand, maybe he never proposed to return; however, he needed to work up exposure and keep up with his status as the shadow competitor for one more year. 

Any place they are on scoresheets, it’d be energizing to have simply him and Heath in a callout; two champions are duelling indeed, very much like bygone eras, perhaps every one of them going after the last time. 

What’s more, it’d be incredible for another age of fans to observe weight training’s most exceptional pretender cast a spell with muscles and music as no one but he can, actually like bygone eras, perhaps once and for all.

img source

Nick Salzano Discusses Should we drink Chocolate milk after the Exercise?

Nick salzano- fitness blog

Chocolate milk has for quite some time been promoted as the go-to recuperation drink. 

That is because, post-exercise, you need a bite (or, for this situation, a beverage) that gives you a portion of both carbs and protein. 

Carbs assist with recharging the glucose-the fuel your muscles need for energy-and protein reconstructs and fixes muscle breakdown. 

Science probably began the promotion around chocolate milk as a top supplier for a carb-protein post-exercise combo. 

One examination tracked down that the 4:1 protein-to-carb proportion assists with exercise recuperation and decreases muscle harm. 

Another examination shows that drinking chocolate milk between exercises can build your chance to depletion, otherwise known as how long you last while starting to perspire without feeling very drained. 

However, while analysts back up tasting chocolate milk after work out, they’re unsure about measurements or timing.

Besides, it probably won’t work for everybody. In this way, we requested that a dietitian say something regarding whether it ought to be your go-to treat after perspiration. 

There are a couple of exciting points before you begin drinking sweet chocolate milk. 

1. Chocolate milk is best after high perseverance exercises, such as running, swimming, or turning. If you stretch, walk, or do yoga streams, a post-exercise glass of water may get the job done. 

2. Some chocolate milk brands incorporate many added sugars. Search for food marks that show low sugar substances. Sugar has numerous structures. Thus, know about tricky increases like high fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, sucrose, and dextrose. 

3. On the off chance that lactose makes your stomach pain, chocolate milk doesn’t seem like your best post-exercise recuperation. Remember that nondairy chocolate “milk” probably won’t have a similar post-exercise benefit. 

How to Select a Workout Recovery Snack?

Enhanced beverages animate your craving and permit you to drink more, supplanting water lost as sweat from the Exercise.

You devour more on the off chance that you like what you’re drinking. Many competitors clamoured for chocolate milk and disregarded other high-carb choices like Endurox R4, energy bars, or gels. 

Post-exercise food alternatives don’t need to end at the general store rack by the same token. 

A mentor, baseball ballplayer, and eager weightlifter, Huff loves making his mix. His custom made high-carb, high-protein refreshment combines bananas, peanut butter, Carnation Instant Breakfast (calcium, protein, and carb powder), and milk. 

Fluid and strong starches are similarly acceptable.

You need to realize which sports snacks settle best for your body-gels, sticky bears, dried figs, creature saltines, defied cola, whatever.

Concerning milk, Many experts keep prescribing it to competitors, and numerous has forever changed from Gatorade to chocolate milk to recuperate from everyday runs. 

It’s simple, it’s modest, and it has all that one should require after Exercise.

If your body can’t endure the lactose in chocolate milk, any blend of sugars (a conventional games drink) and protein (whey, egg white, or soy protein powder) will, in all probability, give you similar advantages as drinking chocolate milk after Exercise.

img source

Nick Salzano Discusses Ronnie Coleman: The Legend who Inspires Many

nick salzano- fitness freak

On May 13, 1964, Ronnie Dean Coleman, an American bodybuilder who inspired the whole generation towards fitness and competitive bodybuilding, was born. 

The champ of the Mr Olympia title for a very long time, he is broadly viewed as probably the best in the field of bodybuilding.

Besides his eight Mr Olympia wins, he held the record for most successes as an IFBB proficient with 26 titles. 

Coleman’s kindred official Gustavo Arlotta proposed he go to the Metroflex exercise centre, possessed by novice weightlifter Brian Dobson. 

Dobson offered Coleman a free lifetime enrollment if he permitted Dobson to prepare him for the impending Mr Texas working out contest that year. 

In the wake of preparing for Mr Texas, Coleman won in front of the pack in both the heavyweight and in general classes. 

He additionally crushed Dobson himself. Coleman won his first contest, the Canada Pro Cup, in 1995. The following year, he won the challenge once more, then, at that point, proceeded to win the 1997 Russian Grand Prix. 

1998 was one such Mr Olympia which has made a perpetual imprint in the hearts of gym fans; jumping from ninth place last year, Ronnie stunned everybody and won the title, pulsating incredible names like Nasser El Sonbaty, Flex Wheeler, and Kevin Levrone. 

Thus began the rule of “The King”, a series of wins that would last eight years and set up Ronnie Coleman as perhaps the best professional bodybuilder the world has ever seen. 

His 2003 body shook the world as a whole, he seemed something out of a comic book, and this enormous appearance was mind-blowing. 

During his title rule, he had a contention with Jay Cutler and beat him multiple times; at last, in 2006, Jay got his retribution and deposed Ronnie from his title run. 

Ronnie competed on the Olympia stage two or three years after that and afterwards announced his retirement. 

Even after retirement, he proceeded with visitor posturing for specific shows and surprisingly indicated a rebound in 2010, yet that won’t ever occur. 

Ronnie was likewise well known for his insane tours de force, incorporating an 800lbs back squat and an 800lbs deadlift. 

These insane lifts were made only three weeks out from Mr Olympia, a period where his body was fit, which made them significantly seriously shocking and astonishing. 

This rugged work style negatively affected his body, and Ronnie experienced irritating back issues in the later piece of his life, causing him to go through 13 medical procedures altogether. 

He rivalled a herniated circle for a long time; his solid agony, resilience and energy for the game were the solitary things that kept him going for such a long time. 

Today Ronnie possesses a supplement brand, “Ronnie Coleman Signature Series”, and has many training DVDs, which has assisted him with arriving at total assets of $10 million. 

After having such countless wounds and issues, Ronnie never laments any choice he made during his profession, the solitary lament he has was that he might have gotten four reps on the 800lbs squat, yet he was precautious and went for just two; this shows his affection for lifting weights.

img source

Nick Salzano Discusses Bodybuilding Steroids: The Gloomy State of Athletes

Nick Salzano- fitness freak

Anabolic steroids are the manufactured (made in a laboratory) subordinates of the naturally created chemical testosterone. They advance the development of muscle (anabolic impact) and the normal male qualities of adolescence (androgenic implications). 

When lawfully recommended, they are an alternative for patients who produce strangely low degrees of testosterone or who experience the ill effects of body-squandering infections like malignancy or AIDS. 

When utilized by competitors, the objective is to accelerate the body’s regular muscle-building measure. At the point when we lift loads heavier than what we’re being used to, we make minor miniature tears in muscle filaments. 

The body repairs the muscle tear and afterwards overcompensates by adding greater cells to assemble a more grounded fibre — this is called muscular hypertrophy. After some time, this rehashed cycle of teardown and re-form will bring about muscle development. 

Regular testosterone is the body’s fundamental element for this interaction. However, anabolic steroids can fill in as an enhancement. 

When ingested, an AAS goes through the circulation system to the muscle tissue. It is brought into the muscle cell’s receiving dock, called an androgen receptor. Once conveyed to the muscle cell, the steroid can communicate with the cell’s DNA and invigorate the protein amalgamation measure that advances cell development. 

When taken orally, there is a more severe danger of liver harm, and some anabolic steroids are separated in the stomach and digestive tract with the goal that they don’t work. 

Because of this, the best technique for taking numerous anabolic steroids is by injection, even though needles have their risks. Creams and gels that are assimilated through the skin are additionally famous. 

Cycling is the most famous convention of utilization. Cycling includes taking steroids, halting (to allow the body to recuperate regular cycles), and afterwards initiating once more. 

This might be finished with pyramid dosages, with more modest portions that are gradually expanded to a pinnacle, then, at that point, gradually diminished to stop. 

Since steroid misuse can change the degrees of lipoproteins that convey cholesterol in the blood, victimizers can foster cardiovascular illnesses. 

Steroid use, specific oral steroids, has been displayed to decrease the degree of high-thickness lipoprotein and increment the degree of low-thickness lipoprotein, bringing about the expanded danger for atherosclerosis, which can cause coronary failure and stroke. 

Signs are that high doses of anabolic steroids increase crabbiness and animosity, which might be brought about by optional hormonal changes. Likewise, with the health impacts of steroids, a more significant part of the data about the conduct impacts of steroid misuse comes from case reports and examinations. 

For these case studies, anabolic steroid victimizers report that when they are taking steroids, they are bound to take part in violent conduct like battling, furnished theft, thievery, burglary, and defacing than they are the point at which they are sans drug, as indicated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

As a professional, I usually recommend everyone avoid using steroids or synthetic supplements and adopt natural muscle building methods.

img source

Nick Salzano Shares The Push-Pull Moment in Bodybuilding – The Science Behind It

Push-pull is a way of training that structures exercise dependent on your muscles’ mobility patterns. 

With this training method, you train chest area muscles that perform pushing actions one day and chest area muscles that perform pulling actions another day — either on the next day or isolated by a rest day, contingent upon your experience level. 

Following are the muscles that do pushing and pulling actions:

  • Pushing: shoulders, chest, and triceps
  • Pulling: back, forearms, and biceps.

The leg muscles incorporate the muscles situated on the front (quadriceps) and back (hamstrings) of the calves, glutes, and thighs.

The push-pull way of practice permits you to practice all the significant muscle bunches a limit of two times every week — accepting you prepared six days per week with one rest day. 

This is a favourite exercise split performed by professionals and other athletes, like football players and wrestlers.

This is a well-known exercise split performed by bodybuilders and competitors, like fighters and soccer players.

However, push-pull exercises are incredible for anybody hoping to acquire muscle size and strength, including amateurs. 

Why Do Push/Pull/Legs Split?

The push/pull/legs split is likely the most productive exercise split because all connected muscle groups are prepared collectively in a similar exercise. 

This implies that you get the most outer cover of movements inside a similar exercise, and the muscle bunches being prepared to get a general profit with this cover. 

For instance, when you train your chest with, say, bench press, you are additionally hitting your foremost deltoids and back arm muscles hard. Also, when you train shoulders, you are again including your back arm muscles. 

So it’s a good idea to work these all together in a similar exercise for most extreme cooperative energy and adequacy. 

Essentially when you train your back, your biceps are vigorously included, so it again bodes well to prepare these immediately with the goal that they can get the most significant advantage from the extra incitement. 

It additionally implies you will have a minor overlay of actions among exercises, and this will work with preferred recuperation over most other body part splits. 

Who Should Practice A Push/Pull/Legs Split?

The push/pull/legs split is ideal for both the middle and progressed gym goer. 

All the more explicitly, however, if you are beginning or have not had much in the method of results from your endeavours until this point, you’ll, in all likelihood, do best with a full-body exercise schedule, preparing three days of the week. 

Stick with this for at any rate a half year – more if you are as yet advancing admirably. 

When you hit the middle of the road stage anyway, you’ll most likely discover you’ll improve an upper/lower split routine preparing three or four days out of every week. 

Furthermore, this is perhaps the ideal approach to prepare for by far most of the populace. 

Yet, whenever past the novice stage, you may discover the push/pull/legs split suits you better.

Or on the other hand, you may wish to substitute upper/lower parts with a push/pull/legs split to infer every one of the advantages that each has to bring to the table.

img source

Nick Salzano Discusses-Cardio Before Workout or After Workout: What Should be the Right approach?

Nick salzano-Fitness trainer

Specialists are unquestionably parted on this issue. However, most of the bodybuilding specialists will encourage you to do the cardio after the weight training since, assuming that you do cardio first, it goes through a significant part of the fuel hotspot for your anaerobic work (strength exercise) and exhausts the muscles before their most demanding action. 

This equivalent view holds that strength training first will exhaust the muscles’ stored starches (glycogen or sugar), and hence, will improve fat-consuming during the cardio exercise because of the absence of accessible sugar for fuel. 

But, there is no believable, substantial examination that demonstrates this, and what it should come down to are your fitness objectives. 

For example, if your primary purpose is to increase your high-impact perseverance or lose fat, then, at that point, you ought to do cardio first. 

If you probably fabricate muscle as well as increment your most extreme strength, then, at that point, you should do your strength session before your aerobic exercise. 

You ought to never endeavour a viable strength-building exercise when your muscles are exhausted. You can’t work out at the force essential to give an ideal training inducement.

Since sometimes, you will lift significant weights in your muscle and most intense strength training, exhausted muscles increase the danger of injury. If you tire your muscles out early, your coordination will hurt, and your settling muscles will be debilitated. 

I see many individuals who have laid out an objective of losing fat around their stomach, and they go by an hour on the chest press or doing huge loads of bicep curls.. Why? Since they are fair to those and they see the results. 

The problem is that when they are done with those, they are extravagantly fatigued or don’t have the chance to have a quality cardio exercise.

The equivalent refers to the people I discuss who need to harden their arms yet don’t prefer to lift loads since they choose not to “get huge”. 

Lifting loads doesn’t mean big, and you will not firm those muscles on the treadmill. Go through 10 minutes toward the start of your exercise, dealing with your legs, chest, back, shoulders and arms and afterwards go for your step, venturing long-distance race. You will be stunned at the amount of conditioned you have become.

The reality is this; it is better for you to have consistency in your activity than to stress over the two additional calories you may burn from doing loads of cardio first. Break down your objectives and plan your exercises to arrive at those objectives. 

Before you know it, your paunches will start straightening out without forfeiting any of your chest or bicep size. Furthermore, your back arm muscles will have a mind-boggling shape, and you can, in any case, use the stairwell to the highest point of Mt. Everest. 

All in all, you ought not to complete two exercises one after the other. You will accomplish better outcomes in your solidarity and aerobic exercise on the off chance that you give your body an excellent opportunity to recuperate.

img source

Nick Salzano Discusses Hitting a Plateau in Bodybuilding

Nick Salzano- Body Building Tips

A workout plateau happens when your body acclimates to the demands of your exercises. During a certain exercise level, you may begin to feel unmotivated, exhausted with your workouts, or find that you don’t want to go to the gym. This is an indication that you might be prepared to attempt another fitness routine or workout style.

To continue to get results, you need to dynamically over-burden the body to keep it changing, adjusting and getting more robust!

Since your exercises are getting more manageable doesn’t mean you’ve hit a plateau level, even though it can feel that way. 

When you start any new type of exercise, it can take around six to about ten months for the mind and body to figure out how to consume new activities proficiently. 

When these neural associations have settled, the physical activities should feel more modest. However, this isn’t a workout plateau, as you can develop body fortitude and perseverance. 

When we cut calories excessively low when it comes to the weight-loss plateau, we get an enormous advantage at the start (perhaps the first or second time you attempted it) and afterwards see diminishing results. This is on the grounds that our body, over the long run, figures out how to adjust to a “starvation” climate and will quit consuming fat for fuel. 

Instead, it will turn into fundamentally fat storage, a long-term remnant tactic for our body. Will your body consume fat for energy? Indeed, yet it will likewise hold and store as much fat as possible, too. Sort of a lose-lose situation, eventually.

How to overcome a plateau?

Exercise: Resistance training and strength training improves the durability, perseverance and size of skeletal muscles while shielding your joints from injury during different activities. 

Muscle consumes more energy than fat, so building muscle can help support your metabolic rate. Resistance training likewise assists with cardiovascular wellbeing, especially if you join the best of cardio and weights with High-Intensity Resistance Training. 

Strength training can assist you with accomplishing different objectives like running quicker, building lean muscle and feeling positive about your body. 

Food: Eating a sufficient quantity of food for your body and your activity program will be the way to propelling your digestion for weight reduction. A dietitian can assist you with figuring your necessities and concoct a supper approach and nutritional plans to get there, along with customized suggestions.

Rest days: It permits you to take a break from exercise and help your body to recuperate. As a result, your body starts to renew its energy stores and fix the muscle tissue utilized during your workouts during rest. This is a crucial part of the process to help your tissues grow more extensive and more robust.

Take a day off in a week. This isn’t something to feel regretful about — utilize it as an occasion to catch up with buddies, spend time with parents, read a novel or watch tv, whatever you appreciate! After taking a rest day, you may notice that you have more strength for your next exercise class and your performance increases. 

Follow Nick Salzano Blog for Regular Tips

Img source